Adopting new technologies requires a cultural shift. These shifts do not happen overnight; they take time, for users to experience a learning curve and gain confidence in the new system. Technology use may be inevitable, but it should be managed nonetheless. Research relating to the theory of technology acceptance is ongoing and inconclusive. It refers to concepts in consumer behaviour, the diffusion of innovations, psychology and many more. With more literature available on why and less on how to, we put together an infographic to assist organisations to plan for and encourage technology acceptance.
The infographic is based on an adaptation of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model by Algharibi and Arvanitis (2011)¹, their model adapted the original versions of the theory². They created this version of the UTAUT within the context of healthcare, a sector which has benefited greatly from the use of the theory of Technology Acceptance. We have already documented the use of technology in clinical skills assessment, now let's look at behaviours surrounding the use and acceptance of technology.
The Adapted UTAUT model on the top left of the infographic outlines how the factors of user adoption and user intention affect technology adoption. If system response can be explained by user motivation - then user attitude is extremely important in determining the success of the technology adoption.
User attitude is influenced by perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness.
The key message here is this model can help to predict user's behaviours relating to the new technology by considering the variables and moderators below. The difficulty in providing a single technology acceptance strategy is each element below is dependent on how the technology will be used within a particular domain and organisation.
We suggest to investigate each element of The Adapted UTAUT model and answer the questions on axes A and B in relation to the particular technology being introduced, and in the context of your organisation:
Axis A: Intention & Usage Variables
This breaks down key variables such as performance, effort and social influence. There is also a Facilitating Conditions construct to predict behavioural intention. This would be valuable for creating a training strategy tailored to staff.
Axis B: Key Relationship Moderators
These are factors which determine behaviours and reactions, and ultimately the use of the technology. It includes key demographic factors but also considers a more holistic view of how and when individuals will adapt to change.
Ongoing research will hopefully result in individualised strategic templates which can be adapted to organisations and new technologies. This will greatly reduce financial and resource costs associated with technology acceptance.
Technology acceptance is a work in progress; share your tips or comments below.
¹Algharibi, A. J. and Arvanitis, T. N. (2011) ‘Adapting the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) as a Tool for Validating User Needs on the Implementation of e-Trial Software Systems’. Available at: http://ewic.bcs.org/upload/pdf/ewic_hci11_dc1.pdf (Accessed: 1 June 2017).
²Originally created in 1989 by Davis et al, the Theory of Acceptance Model (TAM) was adjusted by Viswanath Venkatesh et al in 2003 to create the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. TAM is based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA); a theory used in social psychology to explain a wide range of behaviours. The UTAUT model was then further adapted by Algharibi and Arvanitis in 2011 to create The Adapted Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Model, to be used as a validation tool within the framework of Clinical Trial Management Systems.